• Egidia MIFTODE “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
  • Cătălina LUCA “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
  • Carmen MANCIUC “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
  • Andrei VÂȚĂ “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
  • Ioana HUNEA “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
  • Larisa MIFTODE “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
  • Aida BĂDESCU “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
  • Olivia DORNEANU “Grigore T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Iasi
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2


The evolution of coronaviruses, from the obscure virus that produces the common cold to SARS Cov and MERS with dramatic evolution (causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and, more recently to SARS-CoV-2 with the potential for severe systemic damage, is an impressive and worrying one.


1. Accessed at 20 aug.-2020.
2. Coppée F, Lechien JR, Declèves AE, Tafforeau L, Saussez S. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: virus mutations in specific European populations. New Microbes and new Infections 2020; 36:100696.
4. Ye ZW, Yuan S, Yuen KS, Fung SY, Chan CP, Jin DY. Zoonotic origins of human coronaviruses. Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(10): 1686-1697.
5. Newman A, Smith D, Ghai RR, et al. First reported cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in companion animals - New York, March-April 2020. MMWR 2020; 69(23): 710-713.
6. ***American Veterinary Medical Association. 2020. SARS-CoV-2 in animals, including pets.
7. Mahmoud IS, Jarrar YB, Alshaer W, Ismail S. SARS-CoV-2 entry in host cells-multiple targets for treatment and prevention. Biochimie 2020; 175: 93-98.
8. Lei C, Qian K, Li T, et al. Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudo typed virus by recombinant ACE2-Ig. Nat Commun2020; 11(1):2070.
9. ***WHO. Smoking and COVID-19. Scientific Brief, 26 May 2020.WHO-2019-nCoV-Sci_Brief-Smoking-2020.1-eng.pdf
10. Guzik TJ, Mohiddin SA, Dimarco A, et al. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system: implications for risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment options. Cardiovasc Res 2020; 116(10): 1666-1687.
11. Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpa-tients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2020; 395(10229): 1054-1062.
12. Accessed at 21 aug.-2020.
13. Moriarty LF, Plucinski MM, Marston BJ, et al. Public Health Responses to COVID-19 Outbreaks on Cruise Ships - Worldwide, February-March 2020. MMWR 2020; 69(12): 347-352.
14. He X, Lau EHY, Wu P, et al. Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19. Nat Med 2020; 26: 672-675.
15. Long QX, Liu BZ, Deng HJ, et al. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19. Nat Med 2020; 26(6): 845-848.
16. Zhao J, Yuan Q, Wang H, et al. Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in patients of novel coronavirus disease 2019. Clin Infect Dis. 2020; ciaa344.
17. ***Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Center for Health Security. Serology testing for COVID-19. 200228-Serology-testing-COVID.pdf
18. Tan CW, Chia WN, Qin X, et al. A SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test based on antibody-mediated blockage of ACE2-spike protein-protein interaction. Nat Biotechnol 2020; 10.1038/s41587-020-0631-z.
19. Peeling RW, Wedderburn CJ, Garcia PJ, et al. Serology testing in the COVID-19 pandemic re-sponse. Lancet Infect Dis 2020; 20(9): e245-e249.
20. Wu F, Wang A, Liu M, et al. Neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in a COVID-19 re-covered patient cohort and their implication. medRxiv2020; 03.30.20047365.
21. Sun B, Feng Y,Mo X, et al. Kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM and IgG responses in COVID-19 patients. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020; 9(1): 940-948.
22. Ellison RT III, reviewing Ibarrondo FJ et al. N Engl J Med 2020 Jul 21. What is the Duration of Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 ? NEJM Journal Watch, July 28, 2020.
23. Joynt GM, Wu WK. Understanding COVID-19: what does viral RNA load really mean? Lancet Infect Dis 2020; 20(6): 635-636.
24. Xia J, Tong J, Liu M, Shen Y, Guo D. Evaluation of coronavirus in tears and conjunctival secretions of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. J Med Virol 2020; 92: 589-594.
25. Wang H, Wang Z, Dong Y, et al. Phase-adjusted estimation of the number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 cases in Wuhan, China. Cell Discov 2020; 6: 10.
26. Tang B, Wang X, Li Q, et al. Estimation of the transmission risk of the 2019-nCoV and its implication for public health interventions. J Clin Med. 2020; 9(2): 462.
27. Rosenberg ES, Hall EW, Rosenthal EM, et al. Monitoring COVID-19 through trends in influenza-like illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza and COVID-19 - New York State, excluding New York City, January 1 - April 12, 2020. Clin Infect Dis 2020; ciaa684.
28. Zhou S, Wang Y, Zhu T, Xia L. CT features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in 62 patients in Wuhan, China. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2020; 214(6): 1287-1294.
29. Kim H, Hong H, Yoon SH. Diagnostic performance of CT and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for coronavirus disease 2019: a meta-analysis. Radiology 2020; 17: 201343.
30. Yang R, Li X, Liu H, et al. Chest CT Severity Score: An imaging tool for assessing severe COVID-19. Radiology: Cardiothoracic Imaging 2020; 2(2): e200047.
31. Copin MC, Parmentier E, Duburcq T, Poissy J, Mathieu D; Lille COVID-19 ICU and Anato-mopathology Group. Time to consider histologic pattern of lung injury to treat critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection. Intensive Care Med 2020; 46(6): 1124-1126.
32. Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, et al. Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med 2020; 8(4): 420-422.
33. Xiaowei L, Geng M, Peng Y, Meng L, Lu S. Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19. J Pharm Anal 2020; 10(2): 102-108.
34. Alattar R, Ibrahim TBH, Shaar SH, et al. Tocilizumab for the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019. J Med Virol 2020; 10.1002/jmv.25964.
35. RECOVERY Collaborative Group, Horby P, Lim WS, et al. Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19 - preliminary report. N Engl J Med. 2020; NEJMoa2021436.
36. Chen G, Wu D, Guo W, et al. Clinical and immunological features of severe and moderate coronavirus disease 2019. J Clin Invest. 2020; 130(5): 2620-2629.
37. Nascimento JHP, Gomes BFO, Carmo-Júnior PRD, et al. COVID-19 and hypercoagulable state: A new therapeutic perspective. COVID-19 e estado de hipercoagulabilidade: Umanova perspectivate-rapêutica. Arq Bras Cardiol2020; 114(5): 829-833.
38. Ackermann M, Verleden SE, Kuehnel M, et al. Pulmonary vascular endothelialitis, thrombosis, and angiogenesis in Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(2):120-128.
39. Grillet F, Behr J, Calame P, Aubry S, Delabrousse E. Acute pulmonary embolism associated with COVID-19 pneumonia detected by pulmonary CT angiography. Radiology 2020; 201544.
40. Accessed at 22. Aug 2020.
41. Atallah B, Mallah SI, Al Mahmeed W. Anticoagulation in COVID-19. Eur Heart J CardiovascPhar-macother2020; 6(4): 260-261.
42. Wu Q, Zhou L, Sun X, et al. Altered lipid metabolism in recovered SARS patients twelve years after infection. Sci Rep 2017; 7(1): 9110.
43. Guo T, Fan Y, Chen M, et al. Cardiovascular implications of fatal outcomes of patients with corona-virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). JAMA Cardiol2020;5(7):1-8.
44. Du RH, Liang -R, Yang CQ, et al. Predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2: A prospective cohort study. Eur Respir J 2020; 55(5): 2000524.
45. Pranata R, Huang I, Lukito AA, Raharjo SB. Elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide is associated with increased mortality in patients with COVID-19: systematic review and meta-analysis. Postgrad Med J 2020; 96(1137): 387-391.
46. Zhang L, Yan X, Fan Q, et al. D-dimer levels on admission to predict in-hospital mortality in patients with Covid-19. J Thromb Haemost 2020; 18(6): 1324-1329.
47. Wong SH, Lui RN, Sung JJ. Covid-19 and the digestive system. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020; 35(5): 744-748.
48. Su H, Yang M, Wan C, et al. Renal histopathological analysis of 26 postmortem findings of patients with COVID-19 in China. Kidney Int 2020; 98(1):219-227.
49. Zubair AS, McAlpine LS, Gardin T, Farhadian S, Kuruvilla DE, Spudich S. Neuropathogenesis and neurologic manifestations of the coronaviruses in the age of coronavirus disease 2019: A Review JAMA Neurol 2020; 10.1001/ jamaneurol.2020.2065.
50.,than%20for%20those%20without%20headache. Accessed at 19 aug.-2020.
51. Lippi G, Mattiuzzi C, Bovo C, Henry BM. Headache is an important symptom in patients with coro-navirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Diagnosis (Berl)2020; / j/dx.ahead-of-print/dx-2020-0048/dx-2020-0048.xml.
52. Accessed at 21 aug.-2020.
53. Devulapalli CS. COVID-19 - a mild disease in children. Journal NorLegeforen 2020; 140(6): e0231.
54. ECDC. Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome and SARS-CoV-2 infection in children
15 May 2020
covid-19-risk-assessment pediatric-inflammatory-multisystem-syndrome-EU....pdf
55. Ong JSM, Tosoni A, Kim Y, Kissoon N, Murthy S. Coronavirus disease 2019 in critically ill children: A narrative review of the literature. PediatrCrit Care Med2020; 21(7): 662-666.
56. Toubiana J, Poirault C, Corsia A, et al. Kawasaki-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children during the covid-19 pandemic in Paris, France: prospective observational study. BMJ 2020; 369: m2094.
57. Ouldali N, Pouletty M, Mariani P, et al. Emergence of Kawasaki disease related to SARS-CoV-2 infection in an epicentre of the French COVID-19 epidemic: a time-series analysis. Lancet Child Ado-lesc Health 2020; S2352-4642(20): 30175-30179.
58. Sadiq M, Aziz OA, Kazmi U, et al. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19 in children in Pakistan. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2020; S2352-4642(20)30256-X.
59. Riggioni C, Comberiati P, Giovannini M, et al. A compendium answering 150 questions on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2. Allergy. 2020;10.1111/all.14449.
60. ***Ordinul 1418/2020 M. Of. 719 din 10-aug-2020. 229019 Accessed at 15 aug 2020.
61. Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, et al. Risk Factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(7):1-11.
62. Rojas-Marte G, Khalid M, Mukhtar O, et al. Outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 disease treated with tocilizumab: a case-controlled study. QJM 2020; 113(8): 546-550.
63. Luo P, Liu Y, Qiu L, Liu X, Liu D, Li J. Tocilizumab treatment in COVID-19: A single center expe-rience. J Med Virol 2020; 92(7): 814-818.
64. Somers EC, Eschenauer GA, Troost JP, et al. Tocilizumab for treatment of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19. medRxiv 2020; 2020.05.29.20117358.
65. Jin YH, Cai L, Cheng ZH, et al. A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia. Military Medical Research 2020; 7: 4.
66. Yao TT, Qian JD, Zhu WY, Wang Y, Wang GQ. A systematic review of lopinavir therapy for SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus-A possible reference for coronavirus disease-19 treatment option. J Med Virol. 2020; 92(6): 556-563.
67. Lin S, Shen R, He J, Li X, Guo X. Molecular modeling evaluation of the binding effect of ritonavir, lopinavir and darunavir to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 proteases. BioRxiv 2020; 01.31.929695.
68. Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, et al. A Trial of lopinavir-ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(19): 1787-1799.
69. Li Y, Xie Z, Lin W, et al. Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir or arbidol in adult patients with mild/moderate COVID-19: An exploratory randomized controlled trial. Med (N Y). 2020;10.1016/j.medj.2020.04.001.
70. Wang Y, Zhang D, Du G, et al. Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Lancet 2020; 395(10236): 1569-1578.
71. Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, et al. Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19 - Preliminary report. N Engl J Med. 2020; NEJMoa2007764.
72. Cai Q, Yang M, Liu D, et al. experimental treatment with favipiravir for COVID-19: An open-label control study. Engineering (Beijing). 2020; 10.1016/j.eng.2020.03.007.
73. Chang C, Huang J, Cheng Z et al. Favipiravir versus arbidol for COVID-19: A randomized clinical trial. medRxiv 2020.