ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DIABETES MELLITUS AND SARS-CoV-2 INFECTION - A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY IN THE PULMONOLOGY CLINIC OF TÂRGU MUREȘ
The aim of our study was to establish the relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and SARS-CoV-2 infection, given that DM patients have an increased risk of developing severe infections/complications. Material and methods: The study included 108 (33.4%) patients with known or unknown DM or prediabetes PD (fasting blood glucose 100-126 mg%) from a group of 323 COVID-19 patients. Age distribution in the first group with DM/PD: 15.7% ≤ 40 years old, 27.7% 41-60 years old, 52.7% 61-80 years old, 3.7% > 80 years old. Results: We noted a higher percentage in the age group 61-80 and > 80 years old in nondiabetic patients. 92 (85.16%) from the first group and 174 (80.9%) in the second group also associated obesity/overweight. DM/PD were not previously known in 33.4%. 40% required either introduction of insulin or increased doses, due to marked imbalances. Severity of COVID-19 was higher in the DM: 17.6% vs. 53.4% mild forms, 37% vs. 27.9% moderate pneumonias, 45.3% vs. 18.6% severe forms (CT: multiple bilateral “ground glass” infiltrates or consolidation; respiratory failure) with extrapulmonary complications. Fatality was 12% in the first group and 7.4% in the nondiabetic group. All patients associated increased inflammatory markers (CRP, LDH, ferritin) and lymphopenia. Conclusions: DM was an important risk factor for high severity and fatality of infection even in middle-aged people while SARS-CoV-2 infection determined an imbalanced DM and clinical de novo DM/PD. Obesity was a major risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 in both groups (with or without DM). The recommendation of close monitoring after discharge is part of a personalized management to prevent further unfavorable evolution and post COVID-19 complications.
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