GC-MS ANALYSIS OF MALUS DOMESTICA BARK AND LEAF EX-TRACTS IN PESTICIDE NON-EXPOSED AND EXPOSED MATRICES
Aim: Research on phytochemical constituents’ existent in Malus domestica leaves and bark is a nowadays topic of interest especially due to the presence of various secondary metabolites with potential pharmacological characteristics. Quantifying the residual levels of singular pesticides, e.g. tebuconazole, and/or of chemicals in clearly stated combinational formulations is also of great interest especially due to all negative effects induced by pesticides on human health. Material and methods: The strategy within the present study corroborates field activities (i.e. clear treatment scheme, leaf and bark samples collection from the Golden Delicious and Jonathan apple varieties from an orchard in Miroslava, Iasi, Romania, before and after treatments spread) with sample analysis by gas chromatographic methods. Ultrasound-assisted techniques and clean-up procedures were used during the preparative steps. All methanol (MeOH) extracts were analyzed using a gas chromatograph, Agilent 7890A, in tandem with a mass spectrometer, Agilent 5975C, Agilent Technologies, United States of America. Results: Analysis of the chromatographic profiles obtained for the investigated pesticide non-exposed matrices revealed the existence of many potential therapeutic bioactive compounds with positive benefits on human health (e.g., lupeol, friedelin, α-tocopherol known also as vitamin E, mellein). Chromatographic run profiles of methanol extracts associated to sample matrices collected at different periods within the treatment scheme revealed the existence of the chromatographic peak corresponding to tebuconazole at a retention time of 13.75 minutes. Pesticides existent in the in-use clearly stated combinational formulations have been as well identified. Conclusions: A preliminary characterization of the secondary metabolites existent in Golden Delicious and Jonathan apple leaves and bark was achieved for the first time for samples collected from an orchard in Miroslava, Iasi, Northeastern Romania. In pesticide non-exposed matrix compounds of pharmacological interest have been identified. Clear evidence has been obtained about the existence of tebuconazole and of other pesticides from the in-use clearly stated combinational formulations, in all samples collected in a well-established time span from the treatment spread. Samples containing residual pesticides might induce possible negative consequences for human health.
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